The story of Perl OO

Perl OO is difficult to grok for outsiders because the syntax and keywords are unfortunately not the standard ones that all the other languages use. However the concepts are the same and all the same functionality (and more) is there.

Native Perl OO

Native Perl OO is solid but strange. Essentially OO in the Perl core is unfinished: it has good fundamentals but lacks much of the sugary syntax developers in other languages are accustomed to. For various reasons native Perl OO has been stuck in this limbo for years although there have been and continue to be many attempts to finish and polish it. However:

Modern Perl

The Perl language is so flexible you can essentially define your own keywords in a library. Several groups of developers used this flexibility to create a (somewhat) more normal OO sugar syntax on top of Perl's native OO fundamentals which make it much easier to use the power thats there.
These new libraries created a sort of rebirth in Perl as OO was now much easier and had all the modern features you could find in other languages. This rebirth is commonly referred to as "Modern Perl".

Moo vs Moose

There are many OO systems (libraries) and there are new ones all the time. But over the years community consensus has landed on Moo and Moose libraries.

Both libraries provide all the modern OO techniques you are accustomed to in your other favorite languages (albeit with some quirky Perlish syntax). I'm over simplifying but to keep things concise I'll say that

  1. Moo is essentially a subset of Moose and
  2. The main difference is that Moose provides introspection.

Blah bladdy blah what are we going to learn here?

I am going to teach you Moo.